Communication between two or more persons involves a series of steps and elements. This is called steps in communication process. Before communication can take place it needs a purpose, a message to be conveyed between a sender and a receiver. The sender encodes the message (converts it to a symbolic form) and passes it through a medium (channel) to the receiver, who decodes it. The result is transfer of meaning from one person to another.
Elements of Communication
There are six elements of communication:
- Sender: The individual who generates or sends the message is called source of the communicator. No communication takes place without the source (sender of information) and the receiver (consumer of information). The source or sender can be a person, group, or even a machine.
- Encoding: Encoding is the process by which the sender’s ideas are converted into the message through the use of suitable language. The process of transforming thoughts and ideas into symbols is called encoding. The symbols can be verbal or non-verbal. Normally language provides the symbols that are used in the transmission of thoughts to another person. However, non-verbal means such as, gestures, like wink, smile, grunt, frown wave of hand, etc. provide another form through which thoughts can be transmitted.
- Message: The encoded message is required to be transmitted appropriately, in written or verbal form.
- Channel/Media: The media is the means of conveying the message. It links the sender and the receiver. The medium could be a letter, telephone, face to face conversation or electronic gadgets
- Decoding: Decoding is the process by which the receiver interprets the message sent. A successful communication occurs when the receiver decodes the message and attaches a meaning to it which very nearly approximates the idea, thoughts or information the sender wished to transmit
- Receiver: The receiver is one who is intended to receive the message sent by sender.
- Feedback: Feedback constitutes the information which the sender receives about the receiver’s reaction to the message that has been generated. Response and feedback complete the two-way process of communication. It is through the feedback that the source (sender) comes to know if his/her message was correctly received and understood. In case it is found that the message has been received incorrectly, it is possible to make corrections subsequently, if the response is timely
Steps in Communication Process
- The first step in communication process is to formulate the message which one want to convey
- The next step is to decide to whom, when and how to communicate before actual transmission of the message. Actual transmission involves preparing the matter and the form of communication and selecting the medium or means of communication (oral or written) keeping in view the nature of person or group to be addressed.
- The communicator cannot depend on the message alone to get an appropriate response from the receiver. He must ensure that the receiver of the message is not only able to interpret the message correctly but ‘Is also prepared to act according to it. Thus, apart from the clarity of the message, it must inspire the receiver to do or behave as desired by the sender of the message
- After the message has been transmitted 3nd accepted by the receiver, it remains for the communicator to ascertain and evaluate the nature of impact of the communication. This determines whether and to what extent the receiver has positively responded to the message
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