Classification of living organism

March 8, 2014
Taxonomy is the science of classification of living organism whether it is plants, animals or microorganisms.
The Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus is regarded as the father of Taxonomy.

Classification of living organism

Initially living organisms where divided into two categories: Plants and Animals.
Plants were those organisms that make their own food. Plants have chlorophyll which helps them prepare food with the process of photosynthesis. Animals were considered those organisms that depend on others (Plants).
But later it was found that some living organism possesses features of plants as well as animals, for example Euglena can feed by process photosynthesis as well as take nourishment like animals.
In 1959, R H Whittaker same up with Five Kingdom Classification also called Modern classification of living organism.

Modern Classification of living organisms

The modern classification of living organism divides the living organism into five kindoms:
  •  Monera: This kingdom includes the organism having Prokaryotic cell (Prokaryotic cells lacks nucleus). All organisms of this kingdom are microscopic. For example: Bacteria, Arch Bacteria, Cyno Bacteria etc.
  • Protista: This kingdom includes the organism which is unicellular usually found in aquatic habitats. For example: Amoeba, Paramecium, Euglena etc.
  • Fungi: This kingdom includes plants which are non-green, non-chlorophyllus, non-vascular.
    For example: Mushroom, Mucor, Albugo, Yeast etc.

    Uses of Fungi:

    1. In making Bread.
    2. In making Alcohol.
    3. In synthesis of vitamins. Example: Vitamin-D, Vitamin-B2, Vitamin-B12.

    Human diseases from Fungi:
    1. Ringworm
    2. Scabies
    3. Baldness
    4. Athlete’s foot

    Plant diseases from Fungi:
    1. Red rust of sugarcane
    2. Fruit rot of Apple

  • Plantae: Almost all green plants fall under this category.
  • Animalia: Almost all animals fall under this category except protozoa.

 Quick facts

  • Study of Fungi: Mycology.
  • Study of Algae: Phycology.
  • Study of Bacteria: Bacteriology.
  • Study of Virus: Virology.