Porter and Lawler Theory of Motivation
The Porter and Lawler theory of motivation is based on the assumption that rewards cause satisfaction and that sometimes performance produces reward. They hypothesize that the relationship between satisfaction and performance is linked by another variable rewards. They see good- performance leading to reward which lead to satisfaction. It is a multi-variable model and explains the complex of relationship among motivation, performance and satisfaction.
They argue that satisfaction does not always lead to performance. Rather is reverse is true, because people can become complacent after having achieved satisfaction once. On the other hand, performance can lead to satisfaction if the reward systems are effective
Porter and Lawler Theory of Motivation – Rewards
The theory proposed two types of reward:
- Intrinsic Rewards: Intrinsic rewards are given to an individual by himself for good performance. They include feelings of accomplishment and satisfaction of higher-level needs as defined by Maslow. Intrinsic reward are directly related to good performance only if the job structure is varied and challenging so an individual can reward himself if he feels he has performed well
- Extrinsic Rewards: Extrinsic rewards are given by the organization and satisfy mainly lower-level needs. They include such things as pay, promotion, status, and job security. extrinsic rewards are weekly connection to performance
In the model, rewards are linked indirectly to satisfaction through perceived equitable rewards. This variable refers to the amount of rewards an individual feels he should receive as a result of his performance. This variable can also be expanded to include the amount of rewards an individual feels should be attached to a particular position within the organization. Therefore, Porter and Lawler view satisfaction as deficiency measure. Satisfaction is determined by the difference between actual rewards and perceived equitable rewards. If actual reward exceeds perceived rewards, then it results in satisfaction. If opposite occurs, it results in dissatisfaction. The degree to which a person is either satisfied or dissatisfied depends on the size of the difference between the actual and perceived equitable rewards
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